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1 {{box cssClass="floatinginfobox" title="**Contents**"}}
2 {{toc/}}
3 {{/box}}
4
5 There are various types of tests and everyone has its own terminology. You'll find below the XWiki terminology and best practices related to testing.
6
7 Check the [[general development flow>>dev:Community.DevelopmentPractices||anchor="HGeneralDevelopmentFlow"]] to understand better how testing fits in the larger picture.
8
9 = Testing Strategy =
10
11 Here's the general testing methodology used by the XWiki project:
12
13 * Code committed must have associated automated tests.
14 * There are [[checks in the build>>Community.Building||anchor="HAutomaticChecks"]] (in the ##quality## profile - executed automatically on the CI) to ensure that committed code:
15 ** do not reduce the total test coverage for that module
16 * Developers run unit and functional tests on their machines daily and frequently.
17 * Unit and functional tests are executed by the CI, at each commit.
18 * Most automated functional tests are currently running in a single environment (HSQLDB/Jetty/Firefox). However, we've started to use Docked-based testing to test automatically using several configurations and are migrating more and more tests to that. There are jobs in XWiki's CI that execute tests in all configurations regularly (not at each commit though but as much as possible).
19 ** Manual tests are also executed at each release by dedicated contributors and they manually execute tests that are not covered by the automated tests.
20 * Performance tests are executed manually several times per year (usually for LTS releases and sometimes for stable releases too).
21 * Responsiveness tests (e.g. verify that XWiki displays fine on a Mobile) are currently executed manually from time to time by dedicated contributors.
22 * Accessibility (WCAG) tests are performed automatically at each commit.
23 * HTML5 validity tests are performed automatically at each commit.
24
25 == Choosing a type of test to write ==
26
27 The strategy is the following:
28
29 * We need at least one functional test for each feature to make sure the feature really works end to end.
30 * We should limit the numer of functional tests we write because:
31 ** They're costly to write
32 ** They're costly to run (takes a long time to setup the XWiki instance and they're executed on various environments too).
33 ** They're costly to maintain (functional tests are more subject to flickers)
34 ** You get feedback about a problem much later on. A unit or integration tests will be executed when building that module, all the time, while functional tests will give you results hours later once the CI execute them.
35 * When testing variations for a use case then we must favor writing a unit test or an integration tests since they're less costly to execute and run. This can mean: a java unit test, a Javascript unit test (using Jasmine for example), a Java integration test, a ##PageTest## (to test a wiki page or a template).
36 * Ask yourself first what would be the fastest executing test to write that would prove that the change you're bringing to the code is tested. Imagine you're making a change in some JS file for example; writing a functional test for that would be bad and not ideal because of the points listed above and it would be much better to have a Jasmine-based unit test. One exception is if the general feature where the change is located doesn't currently have a fuctional test and thus writing a functional test would cover the generic use case and incidentally also cover the change (without being specific to that change).
37
38 = Unit Testing =
39
40 == Java Unit Testing ==
41
42 See [[Java Unit Testing>>Community.Testing.JavaUnitTesting.WebHome]]
43
44 == JavaScript Unit Testing ==
45
46 {{warning}}
47 The ##jasmine-maven-plugin## we use to run the Javascript test on some module might not work on some distribution, such as Debian buster. A workaround documented as part of https://jira.xwiki.org/browse/XWIKI-17287 is to use {{code}}export OPENSSL_CONF=""{{/code}} to make it work. Also note that we're considering to get rid of Jasmine Maven Plugin in the future since it seems not maintained anymore, you can find information on https://jira.xwiki.org/browse/XWIKI-19316.
48 {{/warning}}
49
50 * These are **tests that do not rely on the DOM**, written as "behavioral specifications", using the [[Jasmine>>https://jasmine.github.io/]] test framework. You can find some information how to write such tests on [[the frontend resources>>xwiki:Documentation.DevGuide.FrontendResources.IntegratingJavaScriptLibraries||anchor="HWhatisJasmine3F"]].
51 * In development mode, you can start the test runner process by running {{code language="shell"}}mvn jasmine:bdd{{/code}} in your command line. This will start a test runner at ##http:~/~/localhost:8234##, that will run all tests in the ##src/test/javascript## directory. Write your tests there and hit refresh to see the results directly in your browser.
52 * For tests that need a DOM, see [[Functional Testing>>||anchor="HFunctionalTesting"]]
53
54 == Java Rendering Testing ==
55
56 We have a special framework for making it easy to write Rendering tests, see the [[Rendering Testing Framework>>rendering:Main.Extending||anchor="HAddingTests"]]
57
58 == View Unit Testing ==
59
60 See [[View Unit Testing>>Community.Testing.ViewUnitTesting.WebHome]]
61
62 = Functional Testing =
63
64 A functional test requires a running XWiki instance.
65
66 == Functional UI Testing ==
67
68 We now have 3 frameworks for running GUI tests:
69
70 * One based on Docker (and using Selenium 3+). This is now the recommended framework to use for new tests.
71 * One based on Selenium3/Webdriver which is now deprecated and shouldn't be used. We encourage committers to port tests written for it to Docker tests. Especially when committers bring modification to the old tests we encourage them to rewrite the tests as new Docker tests.
72 * A last one based on Selenium1 which is also deprecated and shouldn't be used. We encourage committers to port tests written for it to Docker tests. Especially when committers bring modification to the old tests we encourage them to rewrite the tests as new Docker tests.
73
74 {{id name="HSelenium3-basedFramework"/}}
75
76 === Docker-based Testing ===
77
78 This is currently the official way to write UI functional tests.
79
80 See [[DockerTesting]].
81
82 === Legacy Frameworks ===
83
84 In the history of XWiki's development we have built different frameworks to perform functionl tests and we still haven't finished migrating them to the newer frameworks. This is an ongoing process. When fully done, these instructions should be removed.
85
86 ==== Selenium-based Framework ====
87
88 Using:
89
90 * Uses [[Selenium3>>https://www.selenium.dev/]]
91 * To debug a test simply start XWiki somewhere and then debug your JUnit tests as a normal JUnit test in your IDE.
92 ** Note that functional test Maven modules will create an XWiki instance in ##target/xwiki## thanks to the execution of the XWiki Packager plugin, so it's simpler to start this XWiki instance when debugging.
93 * In order to debug more easily flickering tests you can simply add the {{{@Intermittent}}} annotation on your test method and it'll be executed 100 times in a row (you can also specify {{{@Intermittent(repetition=N)}}}to repeat it N times). This is achieved thanks to the [[Tempus Fugit>>http://tempusfugitlibrary.org/documentation/junit/intermittent/]] framework that we've integrated.
94 * To run a specific test, pass the ##pattern## property (it's a regex on the test class name) as in: ##mvn install -Dpattern=TestClass#testName## (this will run the ##testName## test from ##TestClass##)
95 ** More details on the usage of the ##pattern## property and examples can be found in the [[documentation of the XWikiExecutorTestMethodFilter class>>https://github.com/xwiki/xwiki-platform/blob/master/xwiki-platform-core/xwiki-platform-test/xwiki-platform-test-integration/src/main/java/org/xwiki/test/integration/XWikiExecutorTestMethodFilter.java#L25]].
96 * To run the tests on your own running instance (instead of letting Maven close your instance and start a fresh one), use ##-Dxwiki.test.verifyRunningXWikiAtStart=true##. It could be useful to verify that you have not broken the tests on your instance before committing your changes.
97 * By default the Firefox browser will be used but if you wish to run with another browser just pass the ##browser## parameter as in:
98 ** Firefox (default): ##-Dbrowser=*firefox##
99 ** Internet Explorer: ##-Dbrowser=*iexplore##
100 ** Chrome: ##-Dbrowser=*chrome##
101 ** PhantomJS: ##-Dbrowser=*phantomjs##
102 * In case of compatibility problem between the version of the browser and the version of Selenium, you can specify which install of firefox to use thanks to ##-Dwebdriver.firefox.bin##. For example, we use to need Firefox 32 in the past, you could install it locally and refer to it with ##-Dwebdriver.firefox.bin="/path/to/your/firefox-32.0"##.
103 * We check for pages that require Programming Rights automatically by bundling a Listener component that listens to the ##ScriptEvaluatingEvent## event and that drops Programming Rights, in an effort to make the tests fail and so that the developer can notice he requires PR and fix that. In some cases where it's necessary, this can be disabled by setting the configuration {{code language="xml"}}< testProgrammingRights>false</testProgrammingRights>{{/code}} in the configuration of the Package Mojo, and/or by using a System Property to control where the check is performed, e.g. {{code language="xml"}}<xwikiPropertiesAdditionalProperties>test.prchecker.excludePattern=.*:XWiki\.XWikiPreferences</xwikiPropertiesAdditionalProperties>{{/code}}. {{info}}Since XWiki 9.8RC1{{/info}}
104 * If the ##xwiki.test.startXWiki## system property is set to ##true## then the test itself will start/stop XWiki. If set to ##false## then it's then the responsibility of the build to start/stop XWiki. Useful when starting.stopping XWiki inside a Docker container handled by the Maven build for example. {{info}}Since XWiki 10.0{{/info}}
105
106 ===== Best practices =====
107
108 * Tests are located in ##xwiki-platform## inside the module that they are testing. Note that in the past we were putting functional tests in ##[[xwiki-platform-distribution/xwiki-platform-distribution-flavor/xwiki-platform-distribution-flavor-test>>https://github.com/xwiki/xwiki-platform/tree/master/xwiki-platform-distribution/xwiki-platform-distribution-flavor/xwiki-platform-distribution-flavor-test]]## but we have started to move them inside the specific modules they are testing.
109 * Name the tests using ##<prefix>IT.java##.
110 * Use a ##AllITs.java## test suite to ensure that XWiki is started/stopped only once for all tests in the module:(((
111 {{code language="java"}}
112 @RunWith(PageObjectSuite.class)
113 public class AllITs
114 {
115 }
116 {{/code}}
117 )))
118 * Use the ##maven-failsafe-plugin## for functional UI tests:(((
119 {{code language="xml"}}
120 <plugin>
121 <groupId>org.apache.maven.plugins</groupId>
122 <artifactId>maven-failsafe-plugin</artifactId>
123 </plugin>
124 {{/code}}
125 )))
126 * Locate tests in ##src/test/java## (i.e the default maven location for tests)
127 * Tests should be written using the Page Objects Pattern:
128 ** [[Original article from Simon Steward>>https://code.google.com/p/selenium/wiki/PageObjects]]
129 ** [[Article from Martin Fowler>>http://martinfowler.com/bliki/PageObject.html]]
130 * (((
131 Since functional tests take a long time to execute (XWiki to start, Browser to start, navigation, etc) it's important to write tests that execute as fast as possible. Here are some tips:
132 * Write scenarios (i.e. write only a few test methods, even only one if you can so that you can have a single fixture) instead of a lot of individual tests as you'd do for unit tests.
133 * (((
134 Use ##getUtil()## to perform quick actions that are not part of what you wish to test (i.e that are part of the test fixture). For example to create a page you need in your fixture, write:
135
136 (((
137 {{code language="java"}}
138 getUtil().createPage(...);
139 {{/code}}
140 )))
141
142 instead of
143
144 (((
145 {{code language="java"}}
146 WikiEditPage wep = new WikiEditPage();
147 wep.switchToEdit(SPACE_NAME, DOC_NAME);
148 wep.setTitle(DOC_TITLE);
149 wep.setContent(CONTENT);
150 ViewPage vp = wep.clickSaveAndView();
151 {{/code}}
152 )))
153 )))
154 * Your Maven module for test may depend on a specific profile (as a best practice, you can use ##integration-tests##). Doing this, it will be built only when specifically asked with ##-Pintegration-tests## (see below for an example of the ##pom.xml##)(((
155 {{code language="xml"}}
156 <profiles>
157 <profile>
158 <id>integration-tests</id>
159 <modules>
160 <module>application-task-test</module>
161 </modules>
162 </profile>
163 </profiles>
164 {{/code}}
165 )))
166 )))
167 * {{warning}}Never, ever, wait on a timer!{{/warning}} Instead wait on elements.
168 * If you need to create, update or delete a page during your tests, use a space name specific to your test scenario with ##getTestClassName()##. For example:(((
169 {{code language="java"}}
170 getUtil().createPage(getTestClassName(), "Page", "Content", "Title");
171 {{/code}}
172 )))
173 * Tests must not depend on one another. In other words, it should be possible to execute tests in any order and running only one test class should work fine.
174 * Tests that need to change existing configuration (e.g. change the default language, set specific rights, etc) must put back the configuration as it was. This is true only in flavor tests or when several functional tests of different domains are executed one after another. However functional tests located in xwiki-platform specific modules are only running the tests for their module and thus it's not important, and saves times, if they don't clean up.
175 * Tests are allowed to create new documents and don't need to remove them at the end of the test.
176 * Stdout/stderr validation errors(((
177 We have a [[check>>Community.Building.WebHome||anchor="HAutomaticChecks"]] that verifies if functional tests output some invalid content to stdout/stderr. If your test contains such errors it'll fail and then you have 3 options:
178
179 * It's a normal and expected output from the test (for ex the test verifies an error condition and it's expected it will raise a stack trace in the console). In this case add an expectation in the test. For example:(((
180 {{code language="java"}}
181 public class TemplateTest extends AbstractTest
182 {
183 public void wrongTemplate()
184 {
185 ...
186 this.validateConsole.getLogCaptureConfiguration().registerExpected( "Possible break-in attempt!",
187 "Error getting resource [null]");
188 }
189 ...
190 {{/code}}
191 )))
192 * It's a non-expected error. You then have 2 sub-choices:
193 ** Fix the problem (the best and recommended solution!)
194 ** Increase the technical debt by adding an exclude. For example:(((
195 {{code language="java"}}
196 this.validateConsole.getLogCaptureConfiguration().registerExcludes(
197 "java.lang.IllegalStateException: Response is committed");
198 {{/code}}
199 )))
200 )))
201
202 Examples of functional tests:
203
204 * {{scm path="xwiki-platform-core/xwiki-platform-activeinstalls/xwiki-platform-activeinstalls-test"}}Active Installs Application Functional Tests{{/scm}}
205 * {{scm path="xwiki-platform-core/xwiki-platform-administration/xwiki-platform-administration-test"}}Administration Application Functional Tests{{/scm}}
206 * {{scm user="xwiki-contrib" project="application-faq"}}FAQ Application Functional Tests{{/scm}}
207 * {{scm path="xwiki-platform-core/xwiki-platform-ircbot/xwiki-platform-ircbot-test"}}IRCBot Application Functional Tests{{/scm}}
208 * {{scm path="xwiki-platform-core/xwiki-platform-linkchecker/xwiki-platform-linkchecker-test"}}Link Checker Application Functional Tests{{/scm}}
209 * {{scm path="xwiki-platform-core/xwiki-platform-panels/xwiki-platform-panels-test"}}Panels Application Functional Tests{{/scm}}
210
211 ===== Troubleshooting =====
212
213 * If you get an error of the type ###java.net.ConnectException: Failed to connect to localhost/0:0:0:0:0:0:0:1:21684#, try removing the ##WebDriverManager## cache directory at ##/.cache/selenium## and retry.##
214
215 ==== Selenium1-based Framework ====
216
217 * We were using Selenium RC to perform functional tests for GUI. We had created some JUnit extension to easily write Selenium tests in Java.
218 ** Existing tests can be found in ##[[xwiki-enteprise/xwiki-enterprise-test/xwiki-enterprise-test-selenium>>https://github.com/xwiki/xwiki-enterprise/tree/master/xwiki-enterprise-test/xwiki-enterprise-test-selenium]]##
219 * To run these tests on your local machine go to ##xwiki-enteprise/xwiki-enterprise-test/xwiki-enterprise-test-selenium## and type ##mvn install##.
220 * To run a specific test, pass the ##pattern## property as in: ##mvn install -Dpattern=DeletePageTest## (this will run the ##DeletePageTest## - Note that you don't have to specify the extension). In addition if you wish to execute only a specific method from a Test Case class, you can pass the ##patternMethod## property as in: ##mvn install -Dpattern=DeletePageTest -DpatternMethod=testDeletePageCanDoRedirect##.
221 * To enable debug output from the selenium server start maven with the ##-Ddebug=true## switch and then all messages from the selenium server are saved to: ##xwiki-enteprise/xwiki-enterprise-test/xwiki-enterprise-test-selenium/target/selenium/server.log##.
222 * To debug a functional Selenium test in your favourite Java IDE go in ##xwiki-enteprise/xwiki-enterprise-test/xwiki-enterprise-test-selenium## and run maven with ##-Dmaven.surefire.debug##. Maven will wait till you connect your IDE to the running JVM on port 5005. You can put a breakpoint in your IDE and debug the test.
223
224 ==== Browser version ====
225
226 The legacy frameworks only supported testing with one version of the ##Firefox## browser.
227
228 * The ##Selenium 2## version used is ##2.44.0##
229 ** (valid for 18.March.2015. Actual version used can be verified [[here>>https://github.com/xwiki/xwiki-commons/blob/master/pom.xml]] under the ##selenium.version## property)
230 * The ##Firefox## version we use in you continuous integration agents can be [[found in our docker build image>>https://github.com/xwiki/xwiki-docker-build/blob/master/build/Dockerfile#L55]].
231 ** To determine browser compatibility with the Selenium version used, scan [[Selenium's changelog>>https://code.google.com/p/selenium/source/browse/java/CHANGELOG]] and look for entries like "* Updating Native events to support Firefox 24, 31, 32 and 33". That shows the supported browser version for the particular Selenium version.
232
233 If you wish to run tests with the exact configuration as XWiki's [[Continous Integration server>>http://ci.xwiki.org]] uses, you should use the [[XWiki Build Docker Image>>Community.Building.WebHome||anchor="HBuildingwithDocker"]]. This will get you the correct Firefox version pre-installed.
234
235 If you wish to do that manually without Docker then you have to:
236
237 1. [[Download>>https://ftp.mozilla.org/pub/mozilla.org/firefox/releases/]] the corresponding Firefox release
238 1. Unzip it locally
239 1. Use the ##webdriver.firefox.bin## java system property to specify the location of your firefox version
240 11. Depending on how you are starting the functional tests, you`d have to either add the system property in your maven build (surefire plugin configuration) or in your IDE (run configuration)
241 11. Read [[Selenium's FirefoxDriver documentation>>https://code.google.com/p/selenium/wiki/FirefoxDriver]] for more information and options
242
243 ==== Adding a new maven dependency for minimal war ====
244
245 All our functional testing are linked to the build of a custom instance of XWiki based on the dependencies contained in the pom.xml of the test.
246 However, those dependencies are added to a minimal war that is built using dependencies located on different places dependending if it is a docker test, or an older functional test.
247
248 So when a new Maven dependency is added for all distributions, it should be declared in three places:
249
250 * in ##xwiki-platform-minimaldependencies/pom.xml##: this will allow the dependency to be retrieved for both docker tests, and for the standard distribution
251 * in ##xwiki-tools-packager-plugin##, in both ##pom.xml## and ##PackageMojo.java##: those are used for older functional tests.
252
253 == IDE Support ==
254
255 Functional tests are JUnit tests like unit tests. Thus you can execute them from within your IDE. However we usually have them enabled only when the [[##integration-tests## and ##docker## Maven profiles>>Community.Building.WebHome||anchor="HUsingProfiles"]] are enabled so make sure to enable these profiles in your IDE.
256
257 For example with IntelliJ IDEA:
258
259 {{image reference="intellijideafunctionaltest.png" width="650px"/}}
260
261 == Maven ==
262
263 * You can automatically start the XWiki instances in debug mode (i.e. the XWiki JVM will be configured to wait for a client to connect to the debugging port), by passing the ##-Ddebug=true## system property ,as in:(((
264 {{code language="sh"}}
265 mvn clean verify -Ddebug=true
266 {{/code}}
267
268 See the [[Remote Debugging page>>Community.Debugging||anchor="HRemoteDebugging"]] for more details.
269 )))
270 * You can control the XWiki start timeout from the command line with the ##xwikiExecutionStartTimeout## system property, for example:(((
271 {{code language="sh"}}
272 mvn clean verify -Ddebug=true -Dpattern=.*documentModifiedCacheSync.* -DxwikiExecutionStartTimeout=1200
273 {{/code}}
274 )))
275
276 = XHTML, CSS & WCAG Validations =
277
278 * We are using JUnit to validate that all XWiki pages produce valid XHTML.
279 ** Existing tests can be found in ##enterprise/distribution-test/misc-tests/##
280 * [[WCAG Testing Strategy>>WCAGTesting]]
281 * CSS validation must be verified manually using the [[W3C validator>>http://jigsaw.w3.org/css-validator/]]. See [[XHTML & CSS Coding Style>>XhtmlCssCodeStyle]].
282
283 = Performance Testing =
284
285 * These are memory leakage tests, load tests and speed of execution tests.
286 * They are performed manually and in an ad hoc fashion for now. They are executed for some stable versions and for all super stable versions.
287 * See [[Methodology and reports>>test:Performances.WebHome]].
288
289 See the [[Profiling topic>>Profiling]] for details on how to use a profiler for detecting performance issues.
290
291 = Manual testing =
292
293 {{info}}
294 Here's the spirit we'd like to have from the XWiki Manual Testing Team: [[The Black Team>>http://www.t3.org/tangledwebs/07/tw0706.html]].
295 {{/info}}
296
297 Besides automated testing, ensuring software quality requires that features be tested by actual users (see [[Manual testing>>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manual_testing]]). In order to manage manual testing, a [[test plan>>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Test_plan]] is required.
298
299 * [[Manual test reports>>test:Main.WebHome]]
300 * [[Manual Test Strategy>>ManualTestStrategy]]
301 * [[Manual Test Reports>>xwiki:TestReports.WebHome]]
302
303 = Tools Reference =
304
305 We use the following tools in our automated tests:
306
307 * [[JUnit>>https://junit.org/junit5/]]: test framework
308 * [[Mockito>>https://site.mockito.org/]]: mocking environment of unit test to isolate it
309 * [[Hamcrest>>http://hamcrest.org/JavaHamcrest/]]: extra assertions beyond what JUnit provides
310 * [[GreenMail>>http://www.icegreen.com/greenmail/]]: for testing email sending
311 * [[WireMock>>http://wiremock.org/]]: for simulating HTTP connections to remote servers
312 * [[Selenium>>https://seleniumhq.github.io/docs/]]: for functional UI test to simulate a user interacting with XWiki
313 * [[TestContainers>>https://www.testcontainers.org/]]: Docker-based functional testing
314 * [[JMeter>>http://jmeter.apache.org/]]: for performance tests
315 * [[Dumbbench>>https://github.com/tsee/dumbbench]]: for manual performance tests
316
317 = Test Coverage =
318
319 See the [[TestCoverage]] page.

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